Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions: read the following test. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C, and D on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)
By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had become independent nations. The roughly 20 million _____1_____ of these nations loved ______2_____ to the future. Born in the crisis of the old regime and Iberian Colonialism, many of the leaders of independence ____3_____ the ideals of representative government, careers ____4____ to talent, freedom of commerce and trade, the ______5____ to private property, and a belief in the individual as the basis of society ____6___ there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a _____7______ set of laws.
On the issue of ______8_____ religion and the position of the church, ____9_____ there was less agreement _____10____ the leadership Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one _____11___ by the Spanish crown, ______12______ most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism _____13_____ the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the ______14_____ of other faiths. The defense of the Church became a rallying ___15_____ for the conservative forces.
The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarian, valuing equality of everything. Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had ____16_____ in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. By 1854 slavery had been abolished everywhere except Spain’s ____17_____ colonies. Early premise to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much ___18___ because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies ___19____ Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass of the population was ____20____ self-rule and democracy.
1[A]natives [B] inhabitants [C] peoples [D] individuals
2[A]confusedly [B] cheerful [C] worriedly [D] hopefully
3[A] shared [B] forgot [C] attained [D] rejected
4[A] related [B] close [C] open [D] devoted
5[A] access [B] succession [C] right [D] return
6 [A] Presumably [B] Incidentally [C] Obviously [D] Generally
7 [A] unique [B] common [C] particular [D] typical
8 [A] freedom [B] origin [C] impact [D] reform
9 [A] therefore [B] however [C] indeed [D] moreover
10[A] with [B] about [C] among [D] by
11[A] allowed [B] preached [C] granted [D] funded
12[A] Since [B] If [C] Unless [D] While
13[A] as [B] for [C] under [D] against
14[A] spread [B] interference [C] exclusion [D] influence
15 [A] support [B] cry [C] plea [D]wish
16[A] urged [B] intended [C] expected [D] promised
17[A] controlling [B] former [C] remaining [D] original
18[A] slower [B] faster [C] easier [D] tougher
19[A] created [B] produced [C] contributed [D] preferred
20[A] puzzled by [B]hostile to [C]pessimistic about [D] unprepared for
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1,(40 points)
If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006’s World Cup tournament you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months. If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.
What might account for this strange phenomenon? Here are a few guesses: a) certain astrological signs confer superior soccer skills; b) winter-born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity, which increases soccer stamina；c) soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive in springtime, at the annual peak of soccer mania; d) none of the above.
Anders Ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State University, says he believes strongly in “none of the above.” Ericsson grew up in Sweden, and studied nuclear engineering until he realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology. His first experiment, nearly 30 years ago, involved memory: training a person to hear and then repeat a random series of numbers.“With the first subject, after about 20 hours of training, his digit span had risen from 7 to 20,” Ericsson recalls.“He kept improving and after about 200 hours of training he had risen to over 80 numbers.”
This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. In other words, whatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize. And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully, Ericsson determined, was a process known as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.
Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuits, including soccer. They gather all the data they can, not just performance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers. Their work makes a rather startling assertion: the trait wt commonly call talent is highly overrated. Or, put another way, expert performers-whether in memory or surgery, ballet or computer programming-are nearly always made, not born.
21 The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to
[A] stress the importance of professional training
[B] spotlight the soccer superstars on the world cup
[C] introduce the topic of what mules expert performance
[D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others
22 The word “mania” (Line4, Paragraph2) most probably means
[A] fun [B]craze
[C] hysteria [D]excitement
23 According to Ericsson, good memory
[A] depends on meaningful processing of information
[B] results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises
[C] is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors
[D] requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration
24 Ericsson and his colleagues believe that
[A] talent is a dominating factor for professional success
[B] biographical data provide the key to excellent performance
[C] the role of talent tends to be overlooked
[D] high achievers owe their success mostly to nurture
25 Which of the following proverbs is closest to the message the text tries to convey?
[A] “Faith will move mountains” [B]One reaps what one sows
[C]Practice makes perfect [D] Like father, like son